In this exercise, I am demonstrating how to modulate from the key of C to any key. Most players are comfortable changing keys that move up a half step, whole step, or perfect fourth. Other keys are sometimes avoided. However, you can modulate to any key.
The trick is to make it sound smooth. Look for things that the two keys have in common. Do they share common notes or chords? Whenever possible, emphasize the shared notes between keys. This will add a clear connection Of course, the most obvious way to transpose is to get to the dominant seventh chord of the new key. Yet, to my ears, the pure dominant seventh chord can sound very abrupt and ugly and I try to avoid it. Instead, I substitute variations of it such as a Vsus7. You will notice that in many of these modulations, I wait until the last moment to resolve the suspension before hitting the tonic of the key. The ii-V chord progression of the new key can be important as there is a strong tendency for the ii chord to move to the V chord. Therefore, many times, I will ﬁrst go to ii chord of the new key in the beginning of the transition. It all depends on the individual keys and the notes that they share
Examine and play each of these modulations. Learn to create your own. Make it a challenge for you to develop your own conﬁdence in moving from any key to any other.